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QuantumEventTimeSpace is a "safe" formulation in that it cannot be wrong. It is based on facts and mathematical certainty in an experience based model. Although is throws out all the strange fields and forces at a distance in modern physics, it employs universal logic in a finite realm where a best solution is certain to exist.

Inspired by PoesEureka, which proclaims a comparable model to QuantumEventTimeSpace, I am venturing to take the next step and present a wrong model based on intuition and speculation. The process of science is discovering how we are wrong, so within the QuantumEventTimeSpace framework I will introduce a disprovable model.

Discrete Binary Harmonic Cosmology

We start with Poe's arbitrary premise that a single event or disturbance in nothingness is responsible for the perceived universe. I have been hesitant to do such a thing since there must be an infinite number of equivalent initial conditions that can lead to what we perceive. The single event model is one of the simplest.

We further simplify the model by stipulating that this primal event is a binary difference. Like Poe we say the difference is manifest and then annihilated. There can be no meaning of time between the manifestation and the annihilation as there is no clock of intervening events to measure it by.

Binary differentials are two valued, zero or one, true or false, yin or yang, and distinguish 50% of the possibilities of a system, or ultimately possible universes.

We now logically extend the event through the self-synergy of considering the parts with respect to the whole. Most simply we can see the possibility of an event doubler. Like a frequency doubler circuit we decompose the single event into two events, a creation event and an annihilation event. These events can then be similarly decomposed into doubling of frequencies ad infinitum. Thus relative time emerges as powers of two harmonic divisions of the time of the primal event. The division of the primal event by 1/2, 1/4, 1/16, 1/32, 1/64, ... Other harmonics are only approximated by combinations of these. Existence is the sum of all the perceivable frequencies thus generated.

Like the primal event, the relative events are relative differences representing binary differentials which we expect should manifest the quantum adding, annihilating, or folding into an independent dimensions universally creating time and space in an information ecology that is not limited to any particular number of dimensions. The number of dimensions is simply the number of variables in the subset of universal systems of binary differentials manifest.

Infinite division of the primal event generates infinite time but the finite present implies a limited frequency bifurcation in the now.

The bifurcations thus generated should result in observed frequencies related by [[|]] number in a inverse energy relation yielding a finite perceived reality (Real AnthropicPrinciple). This can be tested adding the zero point energy {ZPE Feigenbaum's}, background radiation, and masses by f = h/mc^2 Finite perception implies a size, age and energy of the universe fixed by the currently perceived size of the primal event.

Distances or time manifest are relative perceptions of binary divisions of the primal event. The sum of these divisions is bounded by unity.

We can calculate the maximum size of a perceivable event from the experimentally derived value of Planck's constant. This model predicts that the division and hence the values of Planck's constant itself will decrease over time as manifest in the red shift and expanding universe. But saying that planks constant was the size of the universe or that the universe was the size of Planck's constant are arbitrary distinctions, it is all relative. The size of that first quantum today is the size of the universe. It is the wavelength of the minimum Planck energy. The age of the universe is that distance divided by the speed of light which manifests the mapping of space to time.

Further, the energy required to manifest the Planck length is bounded by the maximum energy which is equal to Plank's constant times its frequency (c/L). The energy of the quanta in this model begins at the total energy of the universe and is now (relatively red shifted to) the Planck energy.

Planck constant, h = e2/(2cae0), Js 6.626E-34

Planck time Tpl 1.351E-43 s

Planck length Lpl 4.05E-35 m

Linear velocity of light, c, m/s 299792458 exactly.

Energy can be released (or absorbed) by atoms only in "packets" of some minimum size

* This minimum energy packet is called a quantum
* The energy (E) of a quantum is related to its frequency (f) by some constant (h):

E = hf

   * h is known as "Planck's constant", and has a value of 6.63 x 10-34 Joule seconds (Js)
    Electromagnetic energy is always emitted or absorbed in whole number multiples of (hf)


Calculate the smallest amount of energy (i.e. one quantum) that an object can absorb from yellow light with a wavelength of 589 nm

Energy quantum = hf

so we need to know the frequency f

f l= c

f = c/l

f = (3.00 x 10^8 m/s)/(589 x 10-9 m)

f = 5.09 x 10^14 s-1

plugging into Planck's equation:

E = (6.63 x 10-34 Js)*( 5.09 x 10^14 s-1)

E (1 quanta yellow) = 3.37 x 10-19 J

[[| source]]

We additionally know that wavelength cannot take just any value and also take on discrete values.

The maximal frequency is c/L, (3.00 x 10^8 m/s) / 4.05E-35 m = 7.5 x 10^42 per second.

This yeilds a maximal energy of e hf (6.63 x 10-34 Js)* ( 7.5 x 10^42 s-1 ) = 4.97 x 10^9 J

The maximum mass becomes m e/c^2 ( 4.97 x 10^9 J ) / (3.00 x 10^8 m/s)^2 = 5.5 x 10-8 kg.

This maximum mass is clearly less than the mass of the universe, it is about the mass of a speck of dust. This mass may be taken as the boundary between the quantum and the classical, or energy and matter.

[[| Definitions:]]

Planck energy An energy of 1.22 1019 GeV (billion electron volts)

Planck energy About 1,000 kilowatt hours. The energy necessary to probe to distances as small as the Planck length. The typical energy of a vibrating string in string theory.

Planck epoch/Planck time The first instant following the beginning of the expansion of the universe, when the cosmic matter density was still so high that gravitational force acted as strongly as the other fundamental forces on the sub-atomic scale.

Planck era The first 10-43 seconds of the Universe's existence. Physics can currently say very little about this time. Quantum gravity is needed before quantum cosmology can be fully realized. Planck length (a) The dimension at which space is predicted to become ``foamlike and at which Einstein's theory is supposed to break down. [(G /h-bar c3)1/2=1.6 10-33 cm] (b) The size limit at which normal notions of space-time are supposed to break down.

Planck length About 10-33 centimeters. The scale below which quantum fluctuations in the fabric of space time would become enormous. The size of a typical string in string theory.

Planck mass About ten billion billion times the mass of a proton; about one-hundredth of a thousandth of a gram; about the mass of a small grain of dust. The typical mass equivalent of a vibrating string in string theory.

Planck tension About 10^39 tons. The tension on a typical string in string theory.

Planck time About 10-43 seconds. Time at which the size of the universe was roughly the Planck length; more precisely, time it takes light to travel the Planck length.

Planck time An instant in the Big Bang, prior to which Einstein's theory of gravitation breaks down and a quantized theory of gravity is needed. It can be expressed as (G /h-bar c5)1/2 where G is Newton's constant of gravitation, is Planck's constant, and c is the speed of light, and it equals 10-43 second.

Planck units Fundamental units of length, time, mass, energy, etc. involving Planck's quantum constant, h-bar, Newton's gravitational constant, G, and the speed of light, c. As they incorporate both the quantum and gravitational constants, the Planck units play a key role in theories of quantum gravity.

Planck's constant Denoted by the symbol h-bar, Planck's constant is a fundamental parameter in quantum mechanics. It determines the size of the discrete units of energy, mass, spin, etc. into which the microscopic world is partitioned. Its value is 1.05 10-27 grams - cm/sec.

[[| The Fundamental Length]]

A clue that something quite extraordinary must happen before r = 0 is reached comes from playing with the three constants of Nature: h (Planck's constant), c (the speed of light) and G (Newton's constant of gravity). The following combination of these constants defines a length

   (2) Lp = (hG/c^3)^1/2

called the Planck length, whose value is about 10-35 m. Corresponding to this incredibly minute length is a huge energy given by

   (3) Mp = (hc/G)^1/2 ~ 1019 GeV.

Mp is called the Planck mass. This energy is huge compared with the energy scale of the proton, which is about 1 GeV---one billion electron-volts, and even huge compared with the almost 2 trillion electron-volts (2 TeV) of the Fermilab particle accelerator, near Chicago. The Planck mass corresponds to a temperature of about 1028 K, that is, about ten thousand trillion trillion degrees above absolute zero==== ====

Because this length (or mass) is defined in terms of the fundamental constants of Nature we expect it must have some deep significance. Indeed it has. It is the length scale at which the strength of gravity is equal to that of the other forces (the nuclear, weak and electromagnetic). It is also the scale at which we are forced to reconcile, somehow, the quantum nature of matter with the space-time nature of gravity. Note that the fundamental length is 20 orders of magnitude smaller than the size of a nucleus; that is, about one hundred million trillion times smaller==== We are a long way from being able to resolve such distances. The shortest distances that have been resolved to date at Fermilab is about 10-18 m, about one thousandth the diameter of a nucleus. ====

In binary harmonic cosmology as in QuantumEventTimeSpace only those distances actually resolved exist. Events manifest the propagation of discrete state differences into the future (repulsions / timespace synthesis) while annihilating the originating (past) difference (attraction/gravity/entropy).

Discrete binary differences may only be parallel (adding or canceling) or orthogonal, there are no other shades of gray (angels) in the binary logical universe. It in only in the averaging of events that absolute orientation emerges. Parallelism is relative not necessarily communicative. It may exhibit spin to a reference frame.

Though binary harmonic cosmology suggests that quanta are quantized and the spectrum, bounded at one end by the Planck wavelength and at the other by the length of the wave length of the single binary differential as a finite step function rather than as an infinite continuity.

There is no gravity or other strange forces at a distance in this model. Expansions and contractions are solely due to the presents or absents of events defining time and space.

How is it that there is much more mass in the universe than the Planck maximum mass?

We have in effect many perspectives on the primal event. Every direction in space points back to it, a perspective on it is frozen in heavenly bodies, and atoms. It can be thought of as looking at the infinite images between two facing mirrors. But the total energy thus manifest is not infinite. Logically we can expect that it is bounded by the Plank tension energy equivalent.

This is approaching something like that woman in Calgary, Kalamara, is promoting as a variant on string theory, except all energy is a manifestation of harmonics of a single binary differential with the effective tension equal to the Plank tension and equivalent total energy. This gives a somewhat reasonable mass of the universe at about 10^42 kilograms assuming the discrete tension closely approximates the calculated values for the Planck tension as I expect.

Gee that mass closely matches current estimates==== ====

In effect the primary binary differential is a pulse. We can compose a pulse adding the infinite series 1/3+1/5+1/7+1/9... and in practice, pulses manifest these harmonics in the classical realm. In the quantum this need not be true. In Discrete Binary Harmonic Cosmology these are not manifest. A 1/3 harmonic could be generated in a discrete TrinaryHarmonicCosmology, but that is another story, and it would not manifest a 1/5 harmonic.

Clearly harmonics of all frequencies seem to be manifest in the classical. It is the imperfection of these apparent harmonics which can introduce errors, or missing information manifesting our world rather than "other worlds" or all worlds.

QCD implies trinity logic. Yet if trinity logic was manifest exactly how would matter and energy be differentiated? How could an atom add it's unique fingerprint to the signals it receives and be more than a mirror of possible existence.

The tetrahedral logic of the hydrogen atom could be manifest by three pairs of binary differences (neutrinos?), but the internal structure conceals a fourth pair comprising a hyper tetrahedral (Hilbert space).

It is often suggested that the quantum is small. That is not true, quantum events constitute everything that happens on every scale. They manifest space and time. The actual world operates on binary harmonics, while our perceived world of odd harmonics seems an mere illusion, yet for most purposes it predicts experience much more aptly. It is an imperfect mirror with odd frequencies (time) on the visible side (space) and binary frequencies (events) on the hidden reality. Where these intersect there is a noisy connection, a storm of Poe's attractions and repulsions manifest as binary differentials blindly propagating the past into the future in a futile attempt to cancel all differences, becoming by it's errors.

Getting the mass of the universe from Planck's constant is only the beginning, we can get the age and size of the universe from the current temperature and the value of the quantum bit from that age/size. The energy of the binary differential, should correspond to the rest mass of a one dimensional object, the neutrino. We can compare the predicted values with experiment and see if the theory is consistent with reality or not. But, at the moment, poe's vision is compelling me to cry EurekaToo==== :) ====

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