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Experiments in the late nineteenth century began to cast doubts on the accuracy of Newton's model. Then early twentieth century Einstein noticed a slight problem. It had been determined by experiment that light had a finite speed. Einstein reasoned that if you could exceed the speed of light you would turn cause and effect topsy-turvy. For Einstein this was absolutely absurd and clearly the universe could not work this way. It must be impossible to get someplace before you left. It was apparent that Newton's truths had limited context. But Einstein created a mathimagical extrapolation between Newton's physics and the world of relativity. He postulated a constant speed of light in the mathematical realm where there is no preferred observer as the speed limit of the universe.

Newton's laws work perfectly well for the traveler, there is no limit to how fast you can get somewhere. This is due ultimately to there being independent time reference frames which a time independence manifest as space. To the unpreferred observer the traveler's clock seems to slow down, their length is contracted and their mass is increasing as they seem to approach the speed of light. In actuality, motion is a relative phenomenon and nothing at all weird is happening to the traveler. It simply turns out that space is a manifestation of time and traveling though space advances them through time with respect to stationary observers. Infinite speed to the traveler would be perceived as the speed of light to the stationary observer.

See: UnitarianSpaceTravelExperience, ClockParadox

Speed of Light in InformationPhysics

In the InformationUniverse independent LightCones, or ReferenceFrames, manifest independent clocks. Space is a manifestation of time independence.

Event time is orderings of events. The orderings can manifest space and or time depending on your relative motion (ReferenceFrame). Space manifests time at the speed of light, to the nearest event.

Super luminal, faster than light teleportation breaks all the laws, the speed of light is the speed of information. It is instantaneous from the point of view of the light, our distorted perception that there was a delay is what we call space.

Light speed in a medium

We perceive light traveling slower through a medium as a function of increasing frequency of the photons and increasing mass density of the medium.

The reasons for this can be found in general relativity. Higher frequencies define shorter wavelengths. The photon actually travels a greater distance by following the gravitational warp of each atom than the external dimension of the object. From the outside, it appears that the light is going slower since it takes longer to pass through the medium.

From the quantum theory perspective, quantum state is defined in four dimensions. Some physicists liken this to having a extra dimension curled up inside of atoms. In effect high frequency wave travel through some of this inner space delaying their trip through the object.

Most frequencies are absorbed by the mass in electromagnetic interactions. These are not the issue however, it is the photons that are of frequencies that are too high to be received electromagnetically that pass through without any interaction.

You could assume that they bounce around inside causes them to take a longer path, but then why would mass density and frequency increase the effect, and why would they follow any predictable path?

It is clear that the frequencies at issue are those that nether reflect or interact at all. You can say they are absorbed momentarily and emitted, but how is that related to mass density and frequency?

Assume for the moment that you can approximate an object with a BlackHole of the same mass, and Hawkings hair the size of the object (quantum electrodynamics effects). The effective internal distance through the object would include the internal dimension of the black hole.

Most calculations of the inner dimensions of a BlackHole would indeed have Einstein rolling in his grave. The one I have seem most frequently is that the inside dimension is the surface area of the horizon times the length of time the black hole existed. This model assume space is "falling in" at the speed of light but has no relevance to an external observer.

The proper calculation is calculate the warp due to the gravitational effects of the mass across a diameter of the object. As you approach the BlackHole horizon the warp gets greater and greater until it reaches 90% at the horizon. Inside the BlackHole moving toward the center, the warp decreases until it reaches zero in the center where the mass is pulling in all direction equally. This results in a finite inner dimension dependent only on mass/energy.

See diagram: (upside down? increasing acceleration is shown in downward direction)


If you used two BlackHole of half the mass each would have half the inner distance, if you model each atom and a BlackHole of equivalent mass then extra space is dispersed in the mass density of the object.

The change in the speed of light through a medium is a fairly small percentage and this model is consistent with the observed effects. If it is correct it would predict the exact values for light travel time. I have not done the calculations.

The vacuum speed of light is the speed light travels through the ZPE, suprisingly empty space has a significant mass density. Should we find places where the ZPE is lower, light would go faster there.

The quantum explaination, inner dimensions, is harder to quantify, but should ultimately provide a more accurate answer due to the discrete quantum effects involved.

See also: HyperHelixStructureOfMatter, InformationUniverse, InformationPhysics, ExperienceModel, BinaryHarmonicCosmology, InformationPhysicsVirtualClassroom, LightCones

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