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Einsteins Theory of special relativity

See LightCones, ClockParadox, SpeedOfLight, UnitarianSpaceTravelExperience, ExperienceModel, FortyTwo, QuantumRelativity, DiscreteRelativity.


The (somewhat updated) Postulates of Special Relativity

1. The Geometry of Spacetime

Statement: "Space and time form a 4-dimensional spacetime".

2. The Existence of Globally Inertial Frames

Statement: "There exist global spacetime frames with respect to which unaccelerated objects move in straight lines at constant velocity".

3. The Speed of Light is Constant

Statement: "The speed of light c is a universal constant, the same in any inertial frame".

4. The Principle of Special Relativity

Statement: "The laws of physics are the same in any inertial frame, regardless of position or velocity".


A fast ship is coming into port. (0.5c) The instant the stern of the ship is adjacent a buoy, a light on the ship's stern flashes coincident with a light on the buoy.

While at sea some guests named Fizeau and Michelson and Morely conducted some experiments on the ship's 300 meter deck.They found that light would traverse the length in 1 microsecond. Even with "warp drive thrusters" pushing the ship sideways at 0.5c there was no evidence of a bent or angled path and the spectra of the stern-light, observed at the bow, was always the same the same as radiated.

Since some have a problem with FTL propagation (over water?) and the paths on the deck have been tested for invariance:

   The buoy has been placed 450 meters from the harbor-master.
   A bow lookout will know of the stern lights flash 1us after it occurs (by the ships clock)
   The ships bow will have moved 150 meters during the interval so the bow lookout can tap the harbormaster on the shoulder.

But But But it takes 1.5 us for the harbor-master to see the buoy flash He has news of the event faster than light could convey it -- builttobongbabe

not really...


Michelson&Morley proves that the light from the stern light and buoy light arrive at the harbor master at the same time and every one measures the same speed of light. This seemingly impossible set of requirements is met easily if we assume space and time are relative such that at the velocity of light, c, space becomes time.

At .75c the space and time axis of the ship are tilted at 45 degrees such that half the time they disagree on the time like or space like nature of events due to the ships high relative velocity. The docks time dimension is horizontal (not shown) for easy reckoning.

The 300 foot ship only appears shortened to 225 feet because only 75% of its space map to the space of the harbor master. Similarly the harbor master only sees 75% of the time like events seen by the bowman.

It is not possible that either of them measure light speed differently or that light speed is dependent on the motion of the source.

At time one (t1) the stern light and buoy light flash. At t2 the ship has moved 150 feet relative to the dock and the stern light traveled 150 to the center of the deck. In the same time the buoy light has traveled 225 feet by dock coordinates, exactly half way. But the bowman still cannot reach the harbor master since he is still 150 feet away (according to harbor master). Relative to the dock the ship seems only 150 feet long. At t3 the buoy light and stern light reach the bowman and harbor master at the same time. The harbor master sees the light from the stern light at double the frequency such that they both agree exactly on the number of times it waved between t1 and t3.

If the buoy light and stern light did not arrive at the same time and the stern light frequency was doubled as expected, the bowman and harbor master would disagree on the number of oscillations from start to finish. Clearly the number of oscillations cannot change depending on who is looking.

Due to symmetry we can tilt the diagram so that the ships space axes is horizontal and the docks frame is tilted to see the ship perspective and get the same result.

the actual number or count of ocsilations.  Consider the folowing to be an interaction between two electrons


It has 12 ocsilations (6 full waves) Suppose there are x ocsilations from the back of the boat to the front of the boat. Although the harbor mastes sees double the frequence and half the distance the count of ocsilations, x is identical. The number of ocsillation cannot be changed by who is looking.

The actual data proving clocks slow down is a lot better than this diagram. The diagram shows 300 feet in the ship frame equals 450 in the dock frame, '(Pythagoras would be happier with 318->450, our speed of light is a bit off). But constant speed of light means the stern light and buoy light must travel together down the deck independent of movement of the source and to the dock in about the same time (the same if our numbers were right).*

We can see how this happens. If we project the ship on the Buoy-Dock axis it seems half size although we can see it is clearly normal size in its own frame. The shortened apparent length plus its movement makes all the light get where it should together at the right speed for everything.

Differences can be left, right, up, down, forward, back, or time which is no movement at all, or change back to the original, tick-tock. We can think of it like a pendulum, left-right, back to the same position. We can think of an electron or atom being batted in every direction by vacuum energy to stay where it is and each time it fails to make progress in any particular direction it move ahead in time. In one dimension discrete expansions on the left (el) plus the expansions of the right (er) equal time, el+er=t and velocity equals el-er.

a stationary object goes, left right, left right, or tick tock, tick tock, whereas at .5c it goes tick tick tick tock, tick tick tick tock. This is an area where discrete effects become evident and Einstein has errors, I call this area discrete relativity where only discrete speeds such as 0,... 1/4, 1/3, .5c, 2/3, 3/4, 4/5 ... and c exist. It is one step above binary relativity where only speed of 0 or c exist. We can of course add any number of ticks before a tock to get unlimited higher rapidity. But I believe this discrete area is where the galactic scale anomalies come from. 'Pythagoras is not a God in the discrete world where the angles of a triangle may all be like 90 degrees due to binary discrimination.*

You dont get the missing clocks back on the way home, in fact tock tock tock tick, tock tock tock tick, clocks just as slowly as tick tick tick tock. Staying still is the fastest your clock can go. Changing reference frames can only delay you into the future, you can never get it back. Our universe includes only delays there is no undelays.

If space and time are not relative, what is the alternative? Discrete effects should "break" special relativity, but is plenty good enough for understanding this example.

See LightCones, ClockParadox, SpeedOfLight, UnitarianSpaceTravelExperience, ExperienceModel, FortyTwo, QuantumRelativity, QuantumSpecialRelativity.

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