In Information Theory, bits of information are defined as conditional probabilities, you can have any degree of maybe and maybe is infinitely divisible.
This uncertainty turns out to be the result of incomplete local knowledge and the impossibility of the ideal information decoder. When observed in nature, we find bits assume discrete values of either true or false, up or down or, yin or yang, relative to the perciever.
Nature is ultimately composed of differences; only changes are measurable or manifest. Changes are reducible to BinaryDifferences, which proprogate deterministically, defining logically unbounded dimensions of related differences, or perceived interaction of QuantumDifferentials and the universal systems generates by simple add, cancel, or exclude (fold into another dimension) operation.
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The Nature of Information
From very simple systems emerge complex behaviors often exhibiting universal computing capability through a combination of rules and initial conditions. Unlike ClassicalLogical systems, Universal computing and QuantumLogic include local time dimensions or evaluation orderings manifesting countable logical contexts having discrete logical structure which evolve over time- ending, cycling, or creating infinite variety in an ecology of information.
Information is physical in that it represents real property and real experience. Complex emergent phenomenon in every semi-fractal dimension of organization in our world can be understood as deterministic chaos. Information physics, or the nature of universal logical systems, finds application in almost every domain of human inquiry. The information systems model provides a divide and conquer approach that leads toward the realization of Hilbert's decision algorithm, Turing's "universal problem solver", Barrow's ultimate compression, and Chaitin's "universal Diophantine equation" by relating local abstractions to global knowledge. And though ultimate knowledge is intractable, non-linear, and paradoxical, there is no finite limit on how close our solution can be.
Intractability once implied that there was no better solution than stabs in the dark. Today we use non-linear or evolutionary algorithms to solve the unsolvable. We have good solutions today to many such problem (e.g. the traveling salesman problem). With an information systems methodology, our CollectiveIntelligence and computing resources intractability is no longer our master.
Science is about measurement. It is no surprise that information models apply to the data-- as it must. What is surprising is that the universe manifests itself in discrete bits, with each perception equivalent to the discrimination of a single proposition (up/down, higher/lower, hotter/colder).
The Information of Nature
In addition to coining the term BlackHole and working on the atomic bomb, John A. Wheeler is the father of Information Physics. He has never been afraid to ask the tough questions inspiring generation after generation of physicists. He with others proved the equivalence of entropy in statistical thermodynamics (loss of ability to do work), with entropy in information theory (loss of information) and has led the quest to determine how "It" (the universe) comes from "Bit" (information). His speculation is that the answer lies in the nature of 'existence'.
"No elementary quantum phenomenon is a phenomenon until it is a registered phenomenon... In some strange sense, this is a participatory universe" (Wheeler 1982).
This is often misinterpreted, to Wheeler's dismay, to imply a human mind is required. as in: http://www.upscale.utoronto.ca/GeneralInterest/Key/quinterp.htm His view is that there is no objective observer, that the observer is intrinsically part of the system being observed.
In Wheelers view, if you see a tree, the tree creates you just as you create it. In other words, existence is collaborative.
In the information systems model, the information universe is composed of senders and receivers of information that is distorted by perspective. Ultimately, what we call real, is the distortion, not the original signal. The original signal is not real either as it is outside our observational window. The only thing that exists are perspectives that are tuned to receive certain information (coding/frequency) which manifests a past sender, if there was one, and a to be determined receiver in the future. If there is no future receiver, the perspective does not exist and neither does the original sender. The information is lost. Many speculate that this existence is lost other worlds we have no communication with. That could be so, but is not science unless we can observe it. Collaboratively we can exist, we manifest each other.
Unless the objects of our world collaborate we will have never existed.
In the ecology of the information universe systems that actually loose information have for the most part evaporated into nothingness. That which is manifest exhibits conservation of information, manifest as energy, and entropy manifest in the collapse of quantum possibilities (that cat died a long time ago) and the expansion of the cosmos.
The Information in Nature
Everything we perceive is the propagation of state change information of discrete quantum events. The manifest is information.
What we find in nature are orderings, A comes before B. There is no measure of time or space between A and B, only the order is manifest. You cannot go back in time and insert C between A and B.
Universal logical systems are infinite but countable from the simplest upwards. all numerical systems correspond to some finite integer numbered logical system. All such systems simple enough to be comprehensible are finite. The set of all possible universal logical systems exists independent of thought.
The universe, so far as we can understand it, manifests some logical system.
The universe is manifest in quantum bits, not infinities
The finite is manifest, the infinite is confined to the world of ideas.
In the standard model of the quantum all the infinities are removed in an ad hoc manner in a process called renormalization giving results shown accurate to hundreds of decimal places.
It also has been shown that there are no "hidden variables". Any internal structure would radically alter the results. Physics has hit a quantum brick wall.
Energy and matter are only manifest in exact multiples of the Planck action.
By coincidence(?) a quanta of energy is exactly enough to discriminate 50% of possible universes, exactly one bit (higher lower, faster slower, hotter colder) for half spin particles e.g. electrons.
The substance of the universe (quanta) behaves exactly like logic. Patterns emerge from chaos. The patterns correspond to logical systems. The set of all logical systems tells us what patterns might emerge. Universal logical systems do not discriminate which systems they manifest, they will manifest all possible logical systems up to some number of states or complexity. Those that conserve information (zero entropy) will exist forever.
We find that very simple interaction rules at the bottom will exhibit universal logic and that computers, humans, matter and energy and the universe itself are examples of universal logical systems.
In the ecology of information only certain logical structures are propagated into the future, but universal logic is at the root of creation.
Consider the following logical statement:
"This statement is false."
Would you say that is true or false?
Universal logic has no problem generating the above logical statement. Any system that would not generate that statement is not universal.
Do not be confused by Platonic classical logic. To say the universe is composed of universal logic does not mean that the logic makes any sense to us.
As Einstein said, "The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is that it is comprehensible", although nature never reveals herself in our mathematical systems of choice, she always reveals simple beauty.
Differences define our world. It is differentiation that distinguishes something from nothing and apples from oranges.
A BinaryDifferential can be conceived or perceived as a dialectal, a Yin Yang, a bit, or a line segment of indeterminate length as it manifests the most basic logical dimension, a discrete differentiation from nothingness.
Changes in mathematics go to zero as a limit at infinity. The real world of planets and stars differences, does not manifest these infinities, in the limit, changes take discrete values in the quantum, a change, or no change, above or below, hotter or colder, up or down, across time or space, depending on ReferenceFrame according to our ExperienceModel. All of experience and thus measurement and physics can be reduced to binary differentials. It was unexpected that all changes perceived turn out to be combinations of multiple binary differentials and that binary differentials are the basic stuff of the information universe in InformationPhysics.
Quantum differential represents the unit action or difference manifest by a unit state change. Wojciech Zurek and Anton Zeilinger showed these correspond to single bit measurements, higher or lower, faster or slower, hotter or colder. We get to answer as many questions as we have quantum differentials. Further, only the questions that are answered are manifest. They represent the basic stuff of both the universe, and of information itself, making them the natural bases for information physics.
The binary differential is the WikiPedia:Sheffer_stroke of the universe. By equivalence to nand-delays lattices (networks) of binary differentials manifest universal computing.
Systems of these are what we ultimately perceive rather than independent quanta. The structure is arbitrary as long as universal computing is manifest in the model as in the universe. The simplest bottom layer consistent with experience is differentials adding or canceling in a common dimension, or defining an independent dimension.
Shannon showed how arbitrary analog signals can be represents discreetly as bits in theory. The challenge of InformationPhysics is to understand how our continuous seeming classical realm is manifest from discrete binary differentials.
It is A New Kind of Science. The universe exhibits the properties of UniversalComputing at the lowest level which may be modeled arbitrarily. The EmergentBehavior of these logical information systems manifest the physical universe we perceive and the nature of information and the information of nature are equivalent.
Be sure to check out:
- QuantumEventTimeSpace model, our
- InfoPhysics Yahoo group has much of the most current activity and
- PoesEureka, EurekaToo
- Paul Davies on Liquid Space
- In the Beginning was the Command Line
- In the Beginning was ()(()((()())()))
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